“A mind is like a parachute. It doesn't work if it is not open.”Paraphrasing Zappa we could say that the same applies to a resilient system: it must be open to "be at work and stay the same". Therefore in my previous post I focused on openness and perception as prerequisites to resilience. There I introduced the three basic services perception is based upon: sensors, quale, and memory. (As discussed elsewhere, antifragility extends resilience with (machine-) learning capability, therefore what we mentioned in our post also applies to computational antifragility.) In this post I continue the discussion providing a practical example: a perception service for a well-known and quite widespread programming language, the so called "C" language.
My discussion will not be a very technical one, and I will do my best to remember that the reader may not be a
programmer or an expert in computers altogether! A number of computer-specific concepts
will be required though, which will be now introduced as gently and as non-technically
as possible (at least, as possible to me!)
The reader accustomed to terms such as "programming language", "computer program", or "programming language variables" may skip this part and go immediately to the next one.
To better enjoy this part the reader is suggested to listen to Frank Zappa's "Call Any Vegetable", kindly provided here.
If you want your computer to do things for you, you need to formulate the intended actions in a way that the computer may understand. Though very fast, computers "speak" a very simple language; that language is so simple that it would be unpractical and in most cases unreasonable to expect a human being to "speak" the same language of a computer.
People who do are often called nerds or in some cases engineers, this second term possibly meaning "persons that talk to engines". (Have you ever seen one such person while s/he calls an engine? Quite moving. Or, at least, the engine often does afterwards.)
As the computer are very good at doing fast very simple things, a first sensible thing to do was to let the computers understand more complex actions. Engineers talked to computers and created "interpreters". As a result of this magic, instead of speaking directly to the machine, people now formulate their commands in some special language. Commands are called "programs" and those special languages are called "programming languages".
(By the way, those "interpreters" were programs too. And yes, I'm using the term "interpreter" for the sake of simplicity.)
Once the first programming languages were created, people could translate their commands — for instance, mathematical formulae — in the simple-and-fast "native language" of computers. Not very surprisingly, that language is often called "machine language". Among the first programming languages that were created there was FORTRAN. FORTRAN in fact stands for FORmula TRANslator. Once the trick was found and its positive returns assessed, other nerds/engineers decided to apply it again and again: as a result, now we have programs written in complex programming languages that are automagically translated into programs in other and simpler programming languages. IF each program is correctly translated and ultimately performs the actions that were intended by the user, then the scheme will work nicely. Yes, it's a big "IF" there.
In mathematical terms: if each "stage" of the above translation process is an isomorphism (namely a function that preserves in the output the validity of the input operations); and if the whole transitive closure is also isomorphic; then the chances are good that the computer will respond to you as you expect it to do.
(In fact even vegetables sometimes are known to respond to you.
By the way, computers are not vegetables. Cabbage is a vegetable. Dig? Need Zappa for that.)
Okay, so now we know more or less what is a program and what is a programming language. We just need another few little ingredients and then we are ready to go with the main course for today — our perception layer. We still need to explain two "little things". One is memory. You might have heard that computers have memories (you know, "my computer has four gigabytes of that!" — "Oh, mine it's better, it's got eight" — that sort of stuff). Memory is were data is stored. If you store things somewhere, it's good to be able to remember where you stored 'em, otherwise you'd end up like me and the stuff on my desk. But that's another story.
When people want to remember where things are stored, they use names. "Where did you put all your pencils?" "Oh those ones? They are in the desk drawer". "Desk drawer" should ideally identify in a clear way where I put those pencils. If there's several drawers in my desk I should be more specific: "they are in the third drawer", for instance. The same applies to computers. Computer memories consists of a long array of "drawers", called "words". If we want to specify where something is stored in a memory word, we must tell its position in the array. That position is called the address of the word. An action for my computer could then be "let me have a look at the content of the memory word at the address 123456"; another one could be "write number 10 in the memory word at the address 123456".
One of the first things that were introduced in programming languages was a better way to refer to those memory words and their content. The engineerds had an idea: let us create names to label certain areas of memory corresponding to memory words. Better, let us allow the program writers to choose their own names. As an example, if I write
what I'm actually telling the computer is:
CALEDONIA_MAHOGANIES_ELBOWS is the name of a variable in a programming language. In this case the programming language is called C and the variable is integer. The latter means that the variable can be used in any arithmetic (or Boolean) expression that accepts an integer number as an argument; one such expression is for instance CALEDONIA_MAHOGANIES_ELBOWS = 7; which stores in the memory word reserved to CALEDONIA_MAHOGANIES_ELBOWS the representation of integer number "7". Another such expression is, for instance, CALEDONIA_MAHOGANIES_ELBOWS / 2. If the two expressions follow each other in the order of their appearance here, then the second expression will return the representation of integer number "3".
We can now proceed to our perception service for the C programming language.
As already mentioned, in my previous post I observed how resilience requires some form of reactive or proactive behavior. In turn, those behaviors call for the system to be "open" — in the sense discussed in previous post and here: the system must be able to continuously communicate and “interact with other systems outside of" itself. In what follows the system at hand will be a program written in C using a special tool. This tool in fact allows a number of sensors to be interfaced and corresponding qualia to be associated to programming languages variables. No special memory services are needed, in that variables are automatically preserved by the hardware.
How does a programming language such as C cope with writing an open system? Not that well actually. No standard tool in the language and supporting system provides standard support for this. How do we optimally manage this then? Through what I call reflective variables.
What is a reflective variable? Well, it's a special type of programming language variable. What makes it special is the fact that the value of a reflective variable is not "stable"; rather, it changes dynamically and abruptly. Why? Because a reflective variable is associated with a hardware sensor and stores the values representing the "raw facts" registered by that sensor and converted into corresponding quale. Thus if we assume that a reflective variable, called int temperature, is associated to a thermostat, then temperature would automatically change its values so as to reflect the figures measured by the thermostat. As an example if the thermostat is turned on and measures a temperature of 20°C, a little later reflective variable temperature would be set to integer value "20"; and if at some point the thermostat realizes the temperature has dropped from 20°C to 19°C, then somewhat later temperature would change its value from "20" to "19".
Sensors, reflective variables, and memory provide a C program with a perception service as defined here. This allows a system programmed in C to be "open" — to a certain degree. As an example take a look at the following picture:
The actual code of this program and some explanations are given in here and here. The code for the system supporting reflective variable cpu is available on demand.A more complex example is shown in the following picture:
Further explanations are given here and here. The code for the system supporting reflective variable cpu and mplayer is available on demand.
In this post and the previous one we discussed perception as a first "ingredient" towards resilient systems. Next, we are going to define and exemplify awareness.
As a final message I'd like to express my gratitude to The Resentment Listener, who is kindly initiating me to the Art, System, and Life of Frank Vincent Zappa. (He's my Zappa guru — though not in the sense of Cosmik Debris, mind! "Now what kind of a guru are you anyway?" 😉)
Preconditions to Resilience: 1.2 Perception by Vincenzo De Florio is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
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